青海湖盆地畜牧活动起源与发展历史探究——以江西沟2号遗址为例
Origin and Development History of Pastoralism in Qinghai Lake Basin: A Case Study of JXG2 Archeological Site 
投稿时间:2020-11-06  
DOI:10.12119/j.yhyj.202004002
中文关键词:  粪生真菌孢子  畜牧业  青海湖  全新世  青藏高原
英文关键词:Coprophilous fungal spores  pastoralism  Qinghai Lake Basin  Holocene  Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(41877455);中国科学院青年创新促进会人才项目(2019422);青海省自然科学基金青年项目(2017-ZJ-931Q) DOI:10.12119/j.yhyj.202004002 青海湖盆地畜牧活动起源与发展历史探究 ——以江西沟2号遗址为例魏海成1,2 (1.中国科学院青海盐湖研究所,中国科学院盐湖资源综合高效利用重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008;2.青海省盐湖地质与环境重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008)
作者单位
魏海成 中国科学院青海盐湖研究所,中国科学院盐湖资源综合高效利用重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008
青海省盐湖地质与环境重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008 
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中文摘要:
      青藏高原因其高寒、缺氧的自然地理环境,被称为地球“第三极”,史前人类在青藏高原高海拔地区(海拔>3 000 m)生存适应过程及其驱动机制是当前学术界关注的热点科学问题。青藏高原东北部地区是史前人类迁移、扩散到高原腹地的重要通道,而青海湖盆地处于该通道的关键区域,是研究史前人类在高原生存适应过程的理想区域。畜牧业是维持青藏高原高海拔地区人类永久定居的最重要生产资料,对人类早期适应高原极端的自然环境具有十分重要的意义。然而,由于缺乏可靠的代用指标,对青藏高原畜牧业的起源和发展历史认识不足。粪生真菌孢子产量大、易保存,对畜牧活动具有直接指示作用,为研究高原畜牧活动历史提供了重要手段。该研究系统采集了青海湖盆地现代放牧家畜粪便和表土样品开展真菌孢子组合特征分析,评估确定对畜牧活动指示敏感的粪生真菌孢子种属类型。并对青海湖江西沟2号遗址(JXG2)地层剖面开展了真菌孢子记录研究。通过JXG2遗址剖面粪生真菌总浓度与炭屑浓度(>50 μm)、石器、动物骨骼和陶片数量等遗址遗存综合对比分析,提出青海湖盆地早期的畜牧活动出现于~6.0~5.5 ka,并在全新世后期逐渐加强,在齐家文化—卡约文化期,农牧经济逐渐取代狩猎—采集经济成为区域主导生业模式。该结论得到青藏高原东北部花粉记录、考古遗址和历史文献资料的支持。
英文摘要:
      The history of permanent human settlement in the high-altitude regions(>3000 m above sea level)of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau(QTP)is important in understanding human adaptation to this cold “Third Pole” region.The Qinghai Lake Basin was an important corridor used by prehistoric humans migrating to the inner QTP.Pastoralism is currently the most important means of sustaining permanent human settlement in the high-altitude regions of the QTP.However,the lack of reliable proxy measures reflecting prehistoric pastoral activities impedes our understanding of how pastoralism developed.The identification of coprophilous fungi in prehistoric cultural deposits may help refine the history of pastoralism.We collected 21 modern domesticated herbivore dung samples and 66 surface soil samples from the Qinghai Lake Basin for fungal spore analyses.We then evaluated how useful such analyses were for identifying grazing activities.Fifty-three samples were also collected from the JXG2 stratigraphic profile(~10.0-0 ka;3312 masl)for fungal spore analysis.By combining the total concentration of coprophilous fungi with charcoal concentrations(>50 mm),lithic artifacts,bones and potsherds recovered from the JXG2 site,we infer that early pastoralism in the Qinghai Lake Basin appeared between ~6.0 to ~5.5 ka and gradually intensified throughout the remainder of the Holocene as herding and farming gradually replaced hunting-gathering as the primary subsistence strategies.These results are supported by pollen records,archeological remains and historical records in the northeastern QTP.
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