基于孢粉的中全新世以来共和盆地人类活动探讨
Human Activities in the Gonghe Basin since the Middle Holocene Based on Sporopollen 
投稿时间:2020-05-15  修订日期:2020-09-02
DOI:10.12119/j.yhyj.202004007
中文关键词:  孢 粉  中全新世  共和盆地  人类活动
英文关键词:Pollen  The middle Holocene  The Gonghe Basin  Human activity
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41761018);青海省地理空间信息技术与应用重点实验室基金资助(2018-006)
作者单位
李生梅 青海师范大学青海省自然地理与环境过程重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008 
侯光良 青海师范大学青海省自然地理与环境过程重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008 
许长军 青海省地理空间信息技术与应用重点实验室,青海 西宁 810001 
魏海成 青海省盐湖地质与环境重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008 
金孙梅 青海师范大学青海省自然地理与环境过程重点实验室,青海 西宁 810008 
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中文摘要:
      采用1310个中国北方表土孢粉,共和盆地达连海化石孢粉数据,利用现代类比法,重建7.0cal kaBP共和盆地的人类活动指数(HI),结果显示:7~5.4 cal kaBP,人类活动非常微弱,盆地内主要为细石器狩猎采集活动,对自然环境影响非常有限;5.4~4.6 cal kaBP人类活动开始显现,宗日文化的定居、农业活动,已经开始对自然环境产生影响;进入3.8~2.0 cal kaBP的青铜时代,HI指示人类活动显著增强,这与当时社会及自然环境背景紧密相关,当时卡约文化遗址数量多达260余处,人口增长,畜牧业确立与普及,风沙活动较弱;1.8~1.2 cal kaBP HI达到峰值,此时汉—唐时期盆地内出现了城址,聚落建制和规模大大提高,人口数量较为稳定,畜牧业发展达到鼎盛,风沙活动较为微弱,人类活动强度达到顶峰;1.0 cal kaBP之后,人类活动相对减弱,这与盆地内风沙活动开始增强,聚落和人口减少,及其畜牧业衰落有关。重建的HI阶段性变化特征与盆地内人类活动的考古和历史记录较为吻合,揭示共和盆地人类活动强度变化,主要受聚落、人口、经济活动形式和沙地变化等自然—社会因素共同驱动,也说明采用孢粉记录来指示过去人类活动变化是可行的。
英文摘要:
      The use of plant evidence,especially sporo-pollen,to track the history of human activities in the past has become a hot spot in the current research.In this paper,1 310 northern China epiphyllosphere and Dalonghai fossil spores data from the Gonghe basin were used to reconstruct the human activity index(HI)of the basin since 7.0 cal ka BP by modern analogy method.The results showed that:from 7 to 5.4 cal ka BP,human activities were very weak.The main human activities of the basin were hunting and collecting of fine stone,which had a limited impact on the natural environment.Human activities began to emerge at 5.4-4.6 cal ka BP.The settlement of Zongri culture and agricultural activities started to have an impact on the natural environment.Into the bronze age 3.8-2.0 cal ka BP,HI indicates a significant increase in human activities,which is closely related to the social and natural environment at that time.At that time,there were more than 260 cultural sites in Kaoyu.Population growth,the establishment and popularization of animal husbandry,and the weakening of wind and sand activities were all fixed.During the Han and Tang Dynasties,the city site was found in the basin;the establishment and scale of settlements were greatly improved;the population was relatively stable;the prosperity of livestock husbandry reached its peak,and the relatively weak sand blown activity resulted in a sustained relatively high HI value at 1.8-1.2 cal ka BP.After 1.0 cal ka BP,human activities were relatively weakened,which is related to the beginning of sandstorm activities in the basin,and the decline of settlements, population, livestock husbandry.The reconstructed HI are in good agreement with the archaeological and historical records of human activities in the basin,revealing changes in the intensity of human activities in the Gonghe basin were mainly driven by natural and social factors such as settlements,population,forms of economic activity and changes in sandy land.It is feasible to use pollen records to indicate past changes of human activities.
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