盐湖卤水的蒸发结晶过程
Studies on Evaporation-Crystallization of Salt Lake Brines in China
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  盐湖,卤水蒸发,介稳相图
英文关键词:Phase Chemistry. Evaporation of brines. Metastable phase diagram, Salt lakes
基金项目:中国科学院自然科学基金
作者单位
陈敬清 刘子琴 中国科学院青海盐湖研究所 
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中文摘要:
      本文从实验和理论相结合的角度上,总结了三十多年我国数十个盐湖等温蒸发和天然蒸发研究结果和研究经验,概括了三种类型盐湖卤水蒸发结晶的规律性,推荐了卤水蒸发结晶的相化学基础数据.对氯化物型卤水,由于介稳程度小,可采用Zdanovskii推荐的四元体系Na+、K+、Mg(2+)∥Cl-—H2O平衡相图进行太阳池工艺计算;对于硫酸盐型卤水,宜用金作美五元体系Na+、K+、Mg(2+)∥Cl-、SO,-H2O介稳相图,而不是Van’tHoff平衡相图;对于后期,锂盐高度浓缩,宜用我们的四元体系Li+、Mg(2+)∥Cl-、SO-H2O介稳相因;对于碳酸盐型盐湖卤水,可用我们的五元体系Na+、K+∥Cl-、CO、SO-H2O介稳相图作为相化学基础,而不是Teeple平衡相图.从相平衡热力学角度上,实现了对卤水蒸发结晶过程的理论描述、计算和预测.其中对一里坪、达布逊、东台吉乃尔、西台吉乃尔等盐湖卤水的研究结果尚属首次报道.
英文摘要:
      The results of isothermal and natural evapotation of dozens Of salt lake brines have been summarized from the high plane of the combination of experiment and theory in the peper. The rules Of evaporation and crystallization were generalized and the theoratical bases of phase chemistry for three types of salt lake brines recommended. Because of small metastability proposed the equilirium phase diagram of the system Na . K . Mg(2 )/Cl- H2O, by Zdanovskii can be used to calculate the technological process of solar pond for the chloride type of brines. The evaporation- crystallization process of sulfate type of brines can be described by the metastable phase diagram by Jin, instead of van't Hoff's diagram; at the later stage of the concentrated lithium brines, our methetuble phase diagram of the quaternary system Li . Mg(2 )/Cl-, SO-H2O is available. Our metastable phase diagram of the system Na , K /Cl. CO, SO-H2O Can be based upon the phase chemistry of carbonate type of brines. rather than Temple' s equilirium phase diagram. The dexcription,the calculstion and/or the prediCtion Of evaporation process of brines were theoratically performed from the view point of thermodynamics. Some results for salt take brines. such as Yiliping. Dabuxun,West Taijinair, East Taijinair arid so on, belong to the first publication.
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